At an international scale, important transboundary linkages have been created with the Iona/Skeleton Coast Park on the Angolan border, the |Ai-|Ais/Richtersveld Transfrontier Conservation Area linked to South Africa, and the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA), which is a joint management initiative between Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe linking state protected areas and communal lands across the five countries. Namibia’s community conservation structures enable wildlife movement across communal land and facilitate improved coordination of activities in these areas.
Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA)
Like other manmade boundaries, international borders frequently cut across natural ecosystems and animal migration routes. Managing such ecosystems is more complex than arrangements within a particular country, as different governments need to cooperate and agree on certain key issues. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the Kavango Zambezi (KAZA) TFCA, where five countries have agreed to work together to conserve a globally significant ecosystem. Adding to this complexity is the mix of land uses within each country, which include national parks, community conservation areas and several towns and villages.
Within Namibia, Kyaramacan Association (in Bwabwata NP), 22 communal conservancies (6 of which have 10 fisheries reserves) and 22 community forests fall within the KAZA TFCA. These entities contribute to Transboundary Natural Resource Management (TBNRM) forums with community representatives from other KAZA countries whereby they share their experiences and address cross-border issues such as wildlife crime, fisheries, forests and fire management.
The town of Katima Mulilo is close to the centre of KAZA, while Rundu is on the furthest western edge. Although north-eastern Namibia is a relatively small part of KAZA, its central position is strategically important for wildlife movements. Furthermore, some of Namibia’s CBNRM practices (e.g. game counts, fisheries reserves) can be introduced to other countries.
A key part of Namibia’s role in KAZA is maintaining and securing several key wildlife corridors that include Namibia, with some animals crossing Namibia entirely. Several existing conservancies and state protected areas (including the Zambezi State Forest) fall within these corridor areas. The corridor around the Kwando River includes the eastern parts of Bwabwata NP (where the Kyaramacan Association is located) and the Mudumu Complex of national parks and conservancies. Another key corridor crosses the Chobe floodplains and the Zambezi River, passing through several conservancies, while the final one connects Khaudum NP, the western part of Bwabwata NP with southern Angola and north-western Botswana
Securing these corridors requires a multi-pronged approach that incorporates the needs of human communities and the ecological requirements of the animals that pass through the area. Mitigating human-wildlife conflict, reducing wildlife crime and developing alternative livelihoods and/or better farming practices to reduce pressure on the corridors will jointly contribute to conserving KAZA. Monitoring wildlife through ground and aerial surveys throughout the region is important to measure the relative success of these initiatives over time.
The WWF Dreamfund is supporting IRDNC to assist five communities who want to establish conservancies, while community game count procedures have been shared with Zambian communities. To address human-wildlife conflict, predator-proof livestock kraals have been built to reduce conflict with carnivores, while the maintenance of elephant corridors through the Wildlife Credits scheme reduces crop losses to elephants. As part of the goal to reduce wildlife crime, the fund provided Forestry officials in the Zambezi State Forest with a vehicle, resulting in several arrests for illegal logging.
The Skeleton Coast/Iona TFCA was signed into being in 2018 by the governments of Namibia and Angola. As the newest TFCA involving Namibia, much work is still required to conserve and sustainably develop this landscape. A team from MEFT and the Namibian University of Science and Technology (NUST) made an exploratory visit to Iona National Park, during which time they met their counterparts in Angola to discuss the way forward. NUST students are providing information on a range of topics related to NRM that can inform the integrated development Plan for this TFCA.
Four Namibian conservancies are located near this TFCA and will therefore play an important role in terms of natural resource management and tourism development on the Namibian side. Community-based ecological monitoring will establish what resources are currently available and how these can be further developed. NUST has therefore trained 20 para-ecologists from communities in both countries to provide support for ecological monitoring and research where they live. In the near future, a community monitoring hub will be established and this information will be integrated into other streams of data using an online portal.
One particular challenge that must be addressed between the Namibian and Angolan communities is crocodile killing in the Kunene River. Establishing a TBNRM forum between Namibian and Angolan community representatives could address this and other pressing local challenges. Other ideas and lessons learned in the KAZA TFCA can thus be adapted and applied in this new conservation landscape.